Those look like mechanical masonry cracks.
Possible foundation movement.
They can be combined with other destructive forces but concrete or clay brick should not be in contact with the grading.
6 inches above grade.I have seen others that quote 4" inches.
The vertical cracking that follows the horizontal crack looks mechanical. JMO
( serpentine cracking ) would follow the masonry bedding head and butt joints ( in my opinion.)
Water penetrates the exterior masonry envelope through ground contact.
Therefore allowing a higher degree of RH to enter the building units. Bricks. Clay or concrete.
The constant wet and drying action causes expanding and contacting on the masonry. Those forces are displaced throughout the masonry wall unevenly.
Causing horizontal and vertical cracking along the masonry bedding weakest points.
( The head and butt joints.) at first and then a shearing forces if the conditions are right.
As in the vertical cracks through the bricks in photo number 2 attest.
There are other possibilities that can drastically effect the exterior envelopes condition you are showing.
Foundation settlement, land movement, structural failure ( foundation, footing, land-slope, downspout to close to the home, etc.)
They should all be addressed before you make any conclusion.
I would write as follows from the 5 photos you have shown.
This is just and exercise remember.
SUSPECT: Mechanical deficiencies in the masonry and concrete brick units.
The brick are in contact with the land or grading.
Recommend a licensed mason.
SUSPECT: Foundation or footing deficiencies.
RECOMMEND: a licensed foundation evaluation company.