Free Books And Articles For Electrical

MREC Publications TopMREC Brochures

The MREC has developed a number of publications on rural energy issues. The following brochures are from 8 to 20 pages long and provide detailed coverage of the subject matter. These brochures are available in hard copy for $2.50 per copy plus shipping charges. Place your order by contacting the secretary via e-mail. For orders of 500 or more copies of one brochure, the brochures may be special printed with your logo attached. If you would like a single copy or would like to review these MREC publications they are available by clicking the following links.

Wiring Handbook for Rural Facilities

Equipotential Planes for Stray Voltage Reduction: Installation Guidelines

Planning Electrical Systems for Dairy Expansion

Farming Safely and Efficiently with Electricity

Stray Voltage Detection: A Self-Help Guide

Power Quality and Computers on the Farm

Installation and Operation of Fencers, Cow Trainers and Crowd Gates

MREC Informational Sheets

These short, one page informational sheets give a brief overview of a specific subject. These informational sheets can be downloaded for you to get up to speed quickly on some frequently asked questions. The MREC encourages you to distribute these documents in electronic or printed format to anyone with a question.

Installation and Maintenance of Cow Trainers (landscape - duplex or print double sided in order to view this publication correctly)

Installation and Maintenance of Cow Trainers (portrait - follow regular printing instructions)

Installing Electrified Crowd Gates (landscape - duplex or print double sided in order to view this publication correctly)

Installing Electrified Crowd Gates (portrait - follow regular printing instructions)

Stray Voltage

High Frequency Noise

Earth Currents

Electrical Pollution

EMF

Other Publications

Publications, papers and presentations from past conferences, MREC member contributions, and other sources are also available on the informational pages on the menu bar to the left of your screen.

http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/electrical/

More on Romex bundles and high temperatures.](http://www.copper.org/applications/electrical/building/pdf/bundle_evaluation_report.pdf)

Violations of Stapling NM-B on Edge Persist

In the 1993 edition of the National Electrical Code®, a new last sentence was added to Section 336-15 (Section 334.30 in the 2005 NEC®), which addresses supports for Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cable. This requirement prohibits stapling of flat NM-B cable on its edge. Code-Making Panel No. 7 was unanimously affirmative in accepting the proposal to add this prohibition, because of the many reported instances in the field in which the jacketing of flat NM-B cable placed on edge was being damaged from overdriving of the staple into the wood framing. In addition, a like requirement was already in place in the 1990 Canadian Electrical Code, Section 12 Wiring Methods, Rule 12-506 (5).

Over 12 years have passed since this rule was put into effect, however many contractors still perform this practice – even though it is forbidden by the Code! In fact, a NEMA survey of 172 electrical inspectors conducted in 2005 indicated that 83% continue to find edge-stapling violations in the field. Virtually all inspectors stated that they look for stapling on edge during inspection, but according to the survey, contractors were ordered to correct the violation 84% of the time. In some cases where the job is not done over, it is because the inspector has made a judgment call, determining that the cable jacketing does not appear to be damaged.

NEMA would like to point out that UL tests for resistance to edgewise crushing using standardized crushing forces, even though adherence to Section 334.30 is vital. However, according to W.T. Bigbee, Encore Wire, “A UL Listing does not guarantee that the cable can withstand all forms of abuse all the time.” Overdriven staples cut into the jacket,” says Bigbee. “This compromises the protection that the jacket is designed to provide to the conductor insulation. Contact between the staple and insulation can lead to exposure of the conductor over time, creating a potential short-circuit or fault hazard. Overdriving of the staple can create a condition known as “cold flow” where the conductor insulation is deformed under the excessive stress of the staple, which could possibly result in sheath deterioration caused by the heat of the conductors.

When installing flat NM-B cable onto wood framing members, it is always best to use insulated staples that feature the nonmetallic saddles that have legs to protect the cable”, says Jim Hlavacek, of The Minerallac Company, a staple manufacturer. “They’re formed for the size of the cable for which they are designed.” Hlavacek also stated that, “The legs of the saddles also help to protect against overdriving of the nail. This style helps best reduce the chance of damage to the cable.” Dave Mercier, Southwire, cautions however, “Regardless of whether insulated or conventional staples are used, it is critical for the installer to remember that flat NM or UF cable must only be stapled flatwise!”

**NEMA welcomes electrical inspectors and contractors to pick up a copy of NEMA RV 2-2005, Application and Installation Guidelines for Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cable and Underground Feeder and Branch Circuit Cable. This publication is a convenient and comprehensive manual on proper installation and uses of these cables. NEMA RV 2 is available for downloading free of charge from the NEMA website, at: **http://www.nema.org/stds/rv2.cfm

Lightning Incidents

Personal Lightning Safety

Structural Lightning Safety

Reference Information

LIGHTNING DAMAGE

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Understanding Grounding as a Fire Safety Necessity

Grounding Electrodes and Grounding Electrode Systems

Grounding and Bonding Basics

Multiwire Branch Circuits

Wiring Methods - Key Requirements

The Importance of Article 300

Navigating Chapter 3

http://www.nfpa.org/freecodes/free_access_agreement.asp?id=7008SB

[http://books.google.com/googlebooks/images/pdf_download_icon.gif

Download](http://books.google.com/books/pdf/Interior_Wiring_and_Systems_for_Electric.pdf?id=5UY1AAAAMAAJ&output=pdf&sig=F8arhmXAYd31K8x6tLa5igQsvcQ)PDF - 16.8M old wiring book

View plain text](http://books.google.com/books?pg=PA280&dq=keyless&id=5UY1AAAAMAAJ&as_brr=1&output=text)

**My Photos **

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           **Electrical Code Violations, by Joe Tedesco**

More from Joe’s library of violations found around the USA!
Electrical Fire and Shock Hazards, by Joe Tedesco

Found in a major hotel in Kansas City! Typical street violations too!
See the GALLERY: http://www.webspawner.com/users/joetedesco/index.html](http://www.webspawner.com/users/joetedesco/index.html)

**Photo Examples of Burns and Other Injuries

http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/construction/images/nav_topbanner.gif

**

**Electrical Burns **

  • **Entrance Wound: High resistance of skin transforms electrical energy into heat, which produces burns around the entrance point (dark spot in center of wound). This man was lucky, the current narrowly missed his spinal cord. **
    **

**

  • **Exit Wound: Current flows through the body from the entrance point, until finally exiting where the body is closest to the ground. This foot suffered massive internal injuries, which weren’t readily visible, and had to be amputated a few days later. **
    **

**Arc or Flash Burns

  • **This man was near a power box when an electrical explosion occurred. Though he did not touch the box, electricity arced through the air and entered his body. The current was drawn to his armpits because perspiration is very conductive. **
    **

**Thermal Contact Burns

  • Current exited this man at his knees, catching his clothing on fire and burning his upper leg.

Internal Injuries

  • This worker was shocked by a tool he was holding. The entrance wound and thermal burns from the overheated tool are apparent

  • Same hand a few days later, when massive subcutaneous tissue damage had caused severe swelling (swelling usually peaks 24-72 hours after electrical shock). To relieve pressure which would have damaged nerves and blood vessels, the skin on the arm was cut open.

Involuntary Muscle Contraction

  • This worker fell and grabbed a powerline to catch himself. The resulting electric shock mummified his first two fingers, which had to be removed. The acute angle of the wrist was caused by burning of the tendons, which contracted, drawing the hand with them.

what’s wrong here?

Can you spot the Code violation?

http://ecmweb.com/images/710WWHtop-pic

](http://ecmweb.com/mag/electric_whats_wrong_78/)
View all 2007 What’s Wrong Here?

Wow,

Thanks for the info Joe, great stuff.

Many Thanks Joe… :slight_smile:

what’s wrong here?

http://ecmweb.com/mag/710ecmWWHtop-pic.jpg What’s Wrong Here?

Oct 1, 2007 12:00 PM, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
How well do you know the Code? Think you can spot violations the original installer either ignored or couldn’t identify? Here’s your chance to moonlight…
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Dec 27, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
Hint: Low rent, no heat…
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Dec 13, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
Hint: Think overexposure…
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Nov 27, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
Hint: New water feature…
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Nov 13, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
Hint: Indecent exposure…
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Nov 1, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
How well do you know the Code? Think you can spot violations the original installer either ignored or couldn’t identify? Here’s your chance to moonlight…
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Oct 26, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
Hint: Fill it with ice…
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Oct 12, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
Hint: Think Too-Tall Jones…
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Oct 1, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
How well do you know the Code? Think you can spot violations the original installer either ignored or couldn’t identify? Here’s your chance to moonlight…
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Sep 27, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
Hint: Pull the plug!..
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Sep 13, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
Hint: Sand is glass now…
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Sep 1, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
How well do you know the Code? Think you can spot violations the original installer either ignored or couldn’t identify? Here’s your chance to moonlight…
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Aug 27, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
Hint: A case of the bends…
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Aug 13, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Jul 27, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
Hint: A misdirected installation…
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Jul 13, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
Hint: I stayed at a Holiday Inn last night!..
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Jul 1, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
How well do you know the Code? Think you can spot violations the original installer either ignored or couldn’t identify? Here’s your chance to moonlight…
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Jun 27, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
Hint: Count the prongs…
**What’s Wrong Here? **

Jun 13, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
Hint: Don’t overlook the obvious on this one…
**What’s Wrong Here? **

May 29, 2007, By Joe Tedesco, NEC Columnist
Hint: Power in a pinch…
**What’s Wrong Here **

May 14, 2007, By Joe Tedesco
Hint: You’ve got mail…
[RIGHT]1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | Next[/RIGHT]

http://books.google.com/books?id=3vUJAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA1&dq=electrician&lr=&as_brr=1&output=html

Joe,
You must be very wise.

It has been said, “To acquire knowledge, one must study; but to acquire wisdom, one must observe.”

You must have seen a lot of stuff in your time.

Thanks for your kind words about **Wisdom **Ben,

Yes I have seen lots of work related items, and I have always been willing to share my knowledge, expertise and information I find with others. I truly enjoy this aspect of my work. I like to keep in touch with others by supplying relevant technical information that I often value and have put to use.

Along with the writer of the quote above, there are some here that would also fit my personality.

(http://www.quotationspage.com/subjects/wisdom/) :wink:

Joe,

Keep 'em coming

Here’s some more free stuff from www.MikeHolt.com
http://www.mikeholt.com/videographicsintro.php
http://www.mikeholt.com/freestuff.php?id=freegeneral

More here! Thanks!

Hazards with Neutral Conductors

Great stuff Joe.

This article brings up a number of changes in the 2008 NEC not mentioned in others I’ve read:

http://www.iaei.org/subscriber/magazine/07_e/manche.html