Though I did not find this during an inspection (a tear out of a kitchen remodel I was doing). This was the Range outlet setup for the kitchen, performed by the previous tenant of the house. Enjoy!
They were bootlegging something off that 240v outlet.
I have seen similar before. Three #12awg together don’t = one #8awg. :o
but they needed another circuit or two…
That is a disaster but I bet it worked for them.
While it does not apply in this situation, here is a good read on parallel conductors: https://www.mikeholt.com/instructor2/img/product/pdf/1220452732sample.pdf