AFCI at the panel and GCFI receptacle on the branch circuit. Combo AFCI needed

As opposed to simply a branch feeder AFCI.

In other words, if the combo AFCI detects a parallel and series arch and additionally an arch to ground, then would not the arch to ground be caught by the GFCI far before the AFCI should see it?

The characteristics of an arc are different than those of a ground-fault. Therefore, a GFCI device won’t necessarily trip during an arc-fault.

The GFCI is a personal protection device typically placed at the end (outlet) of the circuit. Arc faults can occur at any point along the circuit, so the AFCI device is placed at the origination of the circuit.

A combo-type (dual function) AFCI/GFCI breaker provides protection for both types of faults.