Numerous electrical issues in service panel, looking for input...

I did another mock inspection today for a family member. I saw a variety of issues: neutral wire on the dryer circuit landed on the breaker, a large gauge black wire landed on the grounding bus, cardboard wedged between the main breakers but the one that has me scratching my head is it looked like there was cardboard behind the bus bar mounting plate. I’ve looked at google image of service panels, thinking that it was some type of insulation but I can’t find another example. Also, since this was a mock inspection, I’m curious to hear which of the defects would be the biggest concern. Your feedback is appreciated. Thanks. **I just realized the black wire on the neutral/ground bus is probably from the dryer circuit where the white lands on the 30amp breaker…






The cardboard stuff is insulation. The cardboard in between the heavy gauge copper wires on the 220 breaker is insulation (no idea why). The white wire needs to be wrapped in black tape. The black wire on the ground buss must go to a ground rod I’m guessing. Good job

The white conductor on the 2 pole breaker is not a neutral since it’s a 240 volt circuit. Modern dryer circuits would use black and red as phase conductors (4 wire circuit) because they require both a neutral and equipment grounding conductor. As Travis mentioned a piece of tape encircling the white conductor is all that required to re-identity it as a phase conductor.

The larger black conductor on the neutral bus is likely a grounding electrode conductor which can be any color.

Just adding for HIs, that in an old dryer circuit 10-2 NM (re-identified white) would not be to code.

Yes that’s true for modern dryer circuits, for installations prior to the 1996 NEC (250-60 changed to “existing branch-circuit installations only”) using a 3 conductor cable with the neutral also serving as the EGC was permitted for clothes dryers when a number of conditions were met.

True, but the neutral must be insulated if part of NM-B. I only point it out because sometimes I find 10-2 with the bare ground used as the neutral for dryers when it should be insulated. The only exception is SEU cable coming from the main panel.

Just adding it here for future reference.

Yes you’re correct. Around here we would see those old installations in SE cable.