The Rise and Fall of CCA Wood Preservatives

Found this interesting;

**Timeline of Efforts to Ban CCA **

and Arsenic in Treated Wood Products

The Rise and Fall of CCA Treated Wood

Creosote pressure-treated railroad ties first used in the United States.

Copper Napthenate** first used** commercially as a wood preservative.

Copper Chromate (CC) wood preservative
developed by the Celcure Company.

Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) is patented.

CCA Treated lumber is sold in Europe.

CCA-A (the first CCA formulation) is
introduced in the United States.

American Wood Preservers Institute (AWPI), a wood treatment industry group,
is established.

CCA-C, the most widely-used formulation for Chromated Copper Arsenate,
is introduced.

First report of a CCA-related worker injury occurred at Koppers, when workers fell ill after breathing CCA sawdust.

Drs. Ferm and Carpenter publish study on birth defects caused by arsenic in laboratory animals. (1)](

Dr. Ronald Hood publishes additional studies on the teratogenic effects of arsenic on fetal development in mice. (2)](


Germany bans CCA treated wood.


EPA begins Special Review (RPAR) of CCA,
due to concerns that CCA exceeded the EPA’s own risk criteria for fetotoxicity/teratogenicity (birth defects), oncogenicity (cancer)
and mutagenicity (mutations).

Demand for CCA-treated lumber soars during the 5 year period of 1983-1988. (9)](

Reports of CCA injuries begin to mount.


CCA injury case studies are published in medical journals,
including *The *Journal for the American Medical Association.

Scientists warn that:
“working with CCA treated lumber with power equipment in an enclosed area appears to pose a very severe health hazard”, and that
“vigorous measures [should] be taken to inform the lumber industry and the general public of the hazards of burning CCA treated wood…” (3)](


At the request of the EPA, the treated wood industry agrees to develop consumer information sheets as part of a voluntary Consumer Awareness Program (CAP) with important safety information to provide to consumers (end users) of wood preserved with CCA, creosote, or pentacholorophenol (penta).

These warning sheets were to contain steps to prevent potentially hazardous exposures to wood preservatives, and include handling, wood working,
and disposal precautions. (4)](


California Department of Health Services (DHS) issues report to the state legislature on the hazards posed by the use of wood preservatives
in playground equipment.


**EPA concludes its Special Review of CCA and issues a new registration standard for inorganic arsenicals, which imposes additional conditions on CCA’s usages, but no restrictions on its use in treated wood . CCA is now classified as a restricted use pesticide. **

In addition, arsenic and hexavalent chromium are now classified as “class A carcinogens”.

The EPA acknowledges for the first time that both arsenic and chromium have the potential to cause teratogenic/fetotoxic effects.

Late 1980s

Canadian research scientist, Dieter Riedel of Health Canada,
conducts first research study into arsenic leached from playground equipment.
He tested 10 CCA wood playground structures and found arsenic on all 10 structures and in the soil around them.
His study was not published for a few more years.

January 1990

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commisson (CPSC) begins its study called:
“Project for Estimate of Risk of Skin Cancer from Dislodgeable Arsenic on Pressure Treated Wood Playground Equipment”.

August 1990
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) publishes flawed study results on the risk of skin cancer from arsenic on pressure treated wood used in playground equipment. (4)](

The CPSC issues recommendations that:

  1. Treated wood manufacturers & playground equipment manufacturers develop procedures to reduce arsenic in treated wood products.
  2. Wood preservers should increase availability of their consumer information sheets.
  3. the exposure of consumers to arsenic during woodworking operations (sanding, sawing, etc.) should be reviewed.

Canadian study by Drs. Doyle & Malaiyandi on CCA leaching in soil samples and dislodging from playground equipment is published. Study also focuses on reducing user exposure. (5)](


Sweden bans CCA lumber products.

**U.S. EPA bans use of arsenic acid (a pesticide containing inorganic arsenic, which is also a component of CCA) for treating cotton crops. **(9)](

Australian study published on environmental and occupational health aspects of using CCA-treated wood for constructing boardwalks. (6)](

July 1994
**New Jersey becomes the first state to restrict the use of CCA wood in marine applications. CCA is restricted in the construction of new or rebuilt marine structures at marinas where shellfish are prominent. **(9)](

Demand for CCA lumber soars again, as
housing starts rose by 13% in 1994. (9)](

Toxic arsenic levels detected in ash from wood co-generation facilities around Florida stirs controversy.

Florida Center for Solid & Hazardous Waste Management (FCSHWM)
sponsors CCA research at the University of Florida and the University of Miami.

**Drs. Stillwell and Gorny of the Connecticut Agricultural Experimental Station publishes new study on soil contamination from CCA-treated wood decks. **(8)](

Minnesota Listed Metals Advisory Council invites the Florida CCA Research team to their proceedings on hexavalent chromium. Committee debates whether to ban CCA-treated wood.


Arsenic is discovered in the soil at a Gainesville, Florida area
elementary school playground, spurring a big controversy.
The playground is soon torn down and all contaminated soil is remediated.

Citizens of Eastham, Massachusetts vote to use non-CCA treated wood on new dock project due to environmental issues over CCA wood.

Osmose, Inc., a treated wood preserver, publishes its own study of soil contamination from CCA decks.


Disney World chooses to use non-CCA treated wood in the construction of their Animal Kingdom theme park due to concerns about toxicity to zoo animals.

EPA begins re-evaluating failed Consumer Awareness Program (CAP) where wood industry volunteered to notify consumers of CCA wood hazards.

March 2001
**St. Petersburg Times releases Special Report: **
“The Poison in your Back Yard”.

Gainesville Sun follows suit with Special Report: **
“Wood Worries”.

April 2001
Florida DEP issues moratorium on purchase of CCA treated wood for use in state parks. DEP also asks the Florida legislature for funds to convert a state-owned wood treatment plant from CCA to ACQ.

April 2001
Senator Bill Nelson petitions EPA Director Whitman for new mandatory warning labels for CCA treated wood products.

May 2001
Rep. Larry Crow of the Florida Legislature begins failed attempt to get CCA wood banned in Florida.

May 2001
**Environmental groups petition U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission to ban the use of CCA wood for playground equipment. **

July 2001
Treated wood industry agrees to new voluntary warning labels on CCA treated wood.

September 2001
Alachua County, Florida votes to close 10 area playgrounds and tear down their CCA playground structures, replacing them with plastic and metal instead. County also bans all future CCA

October 2001
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission and Canadian government agencies review safety issues of CCA wood. Scientific advisory panels meet to discuss CCA hazards & issues.

October 2001
Bush administration and EPA adopt a more stringent arsenic limit of 10 ppb for drinking water.

November 2001
Environmental Working Group (EWG) publishes provocative report about arsenic levels found in off-the-shelf CCA lumber sold at Lowes and Home Depot retail stores.
December 2001
EPA scientists from FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel recommend
a “bio-monitoring” study of children exposed to CCA wood in playgrounds.

January 2002

States, towns and villages across the U.S. rally to ban CCA from their parks and playgrounds, including the state of Massachusetts, cities of Denver and St. Louis, and even the tiny community of Healey, Alaska.

February 2002

European Union considers banning CCA treated wood in its 15 member countries, including:

**Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Portugal, Spain, **
**Italy, Greece, Austria, The United Kingdom, Ireland, Finland, **
**Sweden, Denmark and The Netherlands. **

February 12 2002

**The treated wood industry and the EPA agree to a 2 year voluntary **
**phaseout of most CCA treated lumber products for residential use. **

**The Phase-out is to conclude by December 31, 2003. No further sales of **
CCA lumber allowed for residential purposes in the U.S. after this date.

March 2002
EWG and other environmental groups petition EPA
to stop sales of arsenic-treated wood and
shorten the phase-out period.

April 6 2002
Canadian wood treaters and Canadian government agencies including Health Canada agree to voluntary phase-out of CCA wood products, similar to U.S. phaseout, ending by December, 2003.

May 2002
New study data revealed at CCA Technical Advisory Group meeting in Gainesville shows that aged CCA wood leaches a more potent form of arsenic than previously thought.

In addition, toxic hexavalent chromium is shown to also leach from CCA wood under alkaline conditions.

June 2002

New York State Legislature Passes CCA Ban

Sept. 2002
Environmental Working Group (EWG) report shows
high levels of arsenic leaching out of pressure–treated wood
in older decks, playsets, and picnic tables.

Dec. 2002
Injuries from arsenic in CCA scrap found in landscaping mulch are reported.

Dec. 10, 2002
Environmental group Beyond Pesticides, Communication Workers of America, BANCCA.ORG and others join together to sue the EPA to ban all forms of toxic treated wood, including creosote, pentachlorophenol and CCA treated wood.

Dec. 16, 2002
The Kerr-McGee Corporation, the nation’s largest creosote producer, announced that it would be leaving the forest products business and closing
at least 4 of its 5 forest products plants immediately.

Dec. 31, 2002
The American Wood Preservatives Institute (AWPI), the national industry trade association representing the pressure-treated wood industry, closes its offices, laying off all of its employees.
Jan. 7,

The European Union (EU) announces its ban on arsenic in wood preservatives, such as CCA, to take effect on June 30, 2004.

Feb. 7 , 2003
The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) releases its long-awaited report on the safety of CCA wood in playground equipment, which details a possible 1-in-10,000 maximum risk of increased lung and bladder cancer.

Mar. 17,
EPA announces the finalization of the voluntary ban on residential
uses of CCA, to take effect on December 31, 2003.

June 4, 2003
Maine bans the sale of all CCA treated wood.

[FONT=Tahoma, Garamond, Arial]July 27, 2003[/FONT]

Class action law suit filed against Home Depot
over CCA wood on behalf of all consumers in Texas.

[FONT=Tahoma, Garamond, Arial]July 28, 2003[/FONT]
Australian PVMA announces intent to
review all CCA treated wood for possible ban.

[FONT=Tahoma, Garamond, Arial]Sept 03, 2003[/FONT]

Flagler County, Florida enacts ban on CCA treated wood.

Oct. 15,
**US Consumer Product Saftety Commission **
rejects recall of CCA Treated wood in Playground Equipment.

Nov. 13, 2003
**EPA releases results of Probabilistic Risk **
Assessment on CCA treated wood in Playground Equipment.

[FONT=Tahoma, Garamond, Arial]Dec. 24, 2003[/FONT]
**Australian PVMA releases draft report and **
calls for a ban of CCA treated wood.

[FONT=Tahoma, Garamond, Arial]Dec. 31, 2003[/FONT]

Last day to legally manufacture CCA treated wood for residential purposes in the United States.

Jan. 1, 2004
EPA’s voluntary ban on manufacture of residential
CCA Treated wood products in the US takes effect.

[FONT=Tahoma, Garamond, Arial]Jan. 30, 2004[/FONT]

Judge Denies Right of Environmental Groups (Beyond Pesticides, et. al.)
to Sue US EPA for Delay on Hazardous Wood Preservatives

[FONT=Tahoma, Garamond, Arial]Feb. 8-11, 2004[/FONT]

International Conference on the Environmental Impacts of
Treated Wood Preservatives is held in Orlando, FL.

Mar[FONT=Tahoma, Garamond, Arial]. 16, 2005[/FONT]

Australia’s Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (PVMA) has ruled that CCA treated timber will be phased out for use in play equipment.

Marcel:) :smiley:

So when I was a young guy building decks, I should have worn a mask!!!

A mask is always advised whenever engaging in criminal activity :mrgreen: :twisted: :mrgreen:

Good info , Marcel

Don’t let them scare you too much about CCA. Look at what you eat!!!

From The CDC (Center for Disease Control):

*For most people, diet is the largest source of exposure to arsenic. Mean dietary intakes of total arsenic of *
*50.6 μg/day (range of 1.01–1,081 μg/day) and 58.5 μg/day (range of 0.21–1,276 μg/day) has been reported for females and males (MacIntosh et al. 1997). U.S. dietary intake of inorganic arsenic has been estimated to range from 1 to 20 μg/day, with grains and produce expected to be significant contributors to dietary inorganic arsenic intake (Schoof et al. 1999a, 1999b). The predominant dietary source of arsenic is generally seafood. Inorganic arsenic in seafood sampled in a market basket survey of inorganic arsenic in food ranged from <0.001 to 0.002 μg/g (Schoof et al. 1999a, 1999b). Intake of arsenic from air and soil are usually much smaller than that from food and water (Meacher et al. 2002). *

From “The Poultry Site”:
[size=2]Arsenic also contaminates many of your favorite foods, including fish, rice and chicken. Some food contamination stems from intentional uses of arsenic. In this report we clearly connect arsenic residues in chicken meat to the decades-old practice of intentionally putting arsenic into chicken feed. Of the 8.7 billion American broiler chickens produced each year, estimates are that at least 70 percent have been fed arsenic. Some of that arsenic stays in chicken meat.