Could be amended and used as a guide or additional SOP.
Report on Proposals — Copyright, NFPA NFPA 73
Electrical Inspection Code for
Chapter 1 Administration
1.1.1 This code provides criteria that enable the identification of the hazardous conditions that are evident during a visual inspection of the electrical systems in existing one-family, two-family, and multifamily dwellings, including mobile homes and manufactured homes.
1.1.2 This code does not define installation requirements that might be desired for convenience or utilitarian purposes.
1.2* Purpose. The purpose of this code is to provide requirements for evaluating installed electrical systems within and associated with existing dwellings to identify safety hazards, fire hazards, shock hazards, overheating, physical deterioration, abuse, non-code-compliant installations, and so forth.
1.3.1 This code applies to accessible electrical equipment and those portions of the electrical system that are accessible without removing any permanent part of the building structure or finish of existing dwellings.
1.3.2 The removal of faceplates or other covers or luminaires (fixtures) to identify hazards shall be permitted.
1.3.3 These inspection procedures shall not damage the building structure, wiring, or equipment.
1.3.4 Inspections in accordance with this code do not necessarily identify future conditions such as failure of components or other portions of equipment or wiring.
1.3.5 This code does not apply to the inspection of new construction, recreational vehicles, or the factory-installed internal wiring and construction of appliances and utilization equipment.
1.4 Enforcement. This code shall be administered and enforced by the authority having jurisdiction designated by the governing authority. (See Annex B for sample wording for enabling legislation.)
1.4.1 The authority having jurisdiction of enforcement of this code shall have the responsibility for making interpretations of the rules and for deciding on the approval of equipment and materials.
188.8.131.52 Where remedial action is required by the authority having jurisdiction, it shall be performed in accordance with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®.
184.108.40.206 This code is intended to require only remedial action necessary to correct the identified hazards.
1.4.2 The authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted to waive specific requirements in this code or permit alternate methods where it is assured that equivalent objectives can be achieved by maintaining effective safety.
Chapter 2 Referenced Publications
2.1 General. The documents or portions thereof listed in this chapter are referenced within this code and shall be considered part of the requirements of this document.
2.2 NFPA Publication. National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471.
NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 2005 edition.
2.3 Other Publications (Reserved)
Chapter 3 Definitions
3.1 General. The definitions contained in this chapter shall apply to the terms used in this code. Where terms are not included, common usage of the terms shall apply.
3.2 NFPA Official Definitions.
3.2.1* Approved. Acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction.
3.2.2* Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). The organization, office, or individual responsible for approving equipment, materials, an installation, or a procedure.
3.2.3* Code. A standard that is an extensive compilation of provisions covering broad subject matter or that is suitable for adoption into law independently of other codes and standards.
3.2.4* Listed. Equipment, materials, or services included in a list published by an organization that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and concerned with evaluation of products or services, that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services, and whose listing states that the equipment, material, or services either meets appropriate designated standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
3.3 General Definitions.
220.127.116.11 Accessible (as applied to wiring methods). Capable of being removed or exposed without damaging the building structure or finish, or not permanently closed in by the structure or finish of the building. [70, 2005]
18.104.22.168 Readily Accessible. Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal, or inspections, without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to climb over or remove obstacles or to resort to portable ladders, and so forth. [70, 2005]
3.3.2 Appliance. Utilization equipment, generally other than industrial, normally built in standardized sizes or types, that is installed or connected as a unit to perform one or more functions such as clothes washing, air conditioning, food mixing, deep frying, and so forth.
3.3.3 Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupter. A device intended to provide protection from the effects of arc faults by recognizing characteristics unique to arcing and by functioning to de-energize the circuit when an arc fault is detected. [70, 2005]
3.3.4 Bonding. The permanent joining of metallic parts to form an electrically conductive path that will ensure electrical continuity and the capacity to conduct safely any current likely to be imposed.
3.3.5 Branch Circuit. The circuit conductors between the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit and the outlet(s). [70, 2005]
3.3.6 Concealed. Rendered inaccessible by the structure or finish of the building. Wires in concealed raceways are considered concealed, even though they may become accessible by withdrawing them. [70, 2005] [See 22.214.171.124, Accessible (as applied to wiring methods).]
126.96.36.199 Grounding Conductor, Equipment. The conductor used to connect the non-current-carrying metal parts of equipment, raceways, and other enclosures to the system grounded conductor, the grounding electrode conductor, or to both, at the service equipment or at the source of a separately derived system. [70, 2005]
188.8.131.52 Grounded Conductor. A system or circuit conductor that is intentionally grounded. [70, 2005]
184.108.40.206 Grounding Conductor. A conductor used to connect equipment or the grounded circuit of a wiring system to a grounding electrode or electrodes. [70, 2005]
220.127.116.11 Grounding Electrode Conductor. The conductor used to connect the grounding electrode(s) to the equipment grounding conductor, to the grounded conductor, or to both, at the service, at each building or structure where supplied from a common service, or at the source of a separately derived system.
3.3.8 Dwelling Unit. One or more rooms for the use of one or more persons as a housekeeping unit with space for eating, living, cooking, and sleeping, and permanent provisions for sanitation.
18.104.22.168 Dwelling, Multifamily. A building that contains three or more dwelling units.
22.214.171.124 Dwelling, One-Family. A building that consists solely of one dwelling unit.
126.96.36.199 Dwelling, Two-Family. A building that consists solely of two dwelling units.
3.3.9 Equipment. A general term including material, fittings, devices, appliances, luminaires (fixtures), apparatus, and the like used as a part of, or in connection with, an electrical installation.
3.3.10 Exposed (as applied to live parts). Capable of being inadvertently touched or approached nearer than a safe distance by a person. It is applied to parts that are not suitably guarded, isolated, or insulated. [70, 2005]
3.3.11 Grounded. Connected to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth. [70, 2005]
188.8.131.52 Grounded, Effectively. Intentionally connected to earth through a ground connection or connections of sufficiently low impedance and having sufficient current-carrying capacity to prevent the buildup of voltages that may result in undue hazards to connected equipment or to persons. [70, 2005]
3.3.12* Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI). A device intended for the protection of personnel that functions to de-energize a circuit or portion thereof within an established period of time when a current to ground exceeds the values established for a Class A device.
3.3.13 Grounding Electrode. A device that establishes an electrical connection to the earth.
3.3.14 Likely to Become Energized. Failure of insulation on.
3.3.15 Outlet. A point on the wiring system at which current is taken to supply utilization equipment. [70, 2005]
184.108.40.206 Lighting Outlet. An outlet intended for the direct connection of a lampholder, a luminaire (lighting fixture), or a pendant cord terminating in a lampholder.
220.127.116.11 Receptacle Outlet. An outlet where one or more receptacles are installed. [70, 2005]
3.3.16 Panelboard. A single panel or group of panel units designed for assembly in the form of a single panel, including buses and automatic overcurrent devices, and equipped with or without switches for the control of light, heat, or power circuits; designed to be placed in a cabinet or cutout box placed in or against a wall, partition, or other support; and accessible only from the front.73-8 Report on Proposals — Copyright, NFPA NFPA 73 DRAFT
3.3.17 Raceway. An enclosed channel of metal or nonmetallic materials designed expressly for holding wires, cables, or busbars, with additional functions as permitted in NFPA 70. Raceways include, but are not limited to, rigid metal conduit, rigid nonmetallic conduit, intermediate metal conduit, liquidtight flexible conduit, flexible metallic tubing, flexible metal conduit, electrical nonmetallic tubing, electrical metallic tubing, underfloor raceways, cellular concrete floor raceways, cellular metal floor raceways, surface raceways, wireways, and busways. [70, 2005]
3.3.18 Receptacle. A receptacle is a contact device installed at the outlet for the connection of an attachment plug. A single receptacle is a single contact device with no other contact device on the same yoke. A multiple receptacle is two or more contact devices on the same yoke. [70, 2005]
3.3.19 Receptacle Outlet. See 18.104.22.168.
3.3.20 Service. The conductors and equipment for delivering electric energy from the serving utility to the wiring system of the premises served. [70, 2005]
3.3.21 Utilization Equipment. Equipment that utilizes electric energy for electronic, electromechanical, chemical, heating, lighting, or similar purposes. [70, 2005]
Chapter 4 General Requirements
4.1 Services, Outside Feeders, and Outside Branch Circuits.
4.1.1 Interior metal water piping systems shall be bonded to the electrical service grounding system.
4.1.2 The service shall be sized or rated to serve the connected load.
4.1.3 Weatherheads shall be fastened in place.
4.1.4 Service-entrance conductors shall not show evidence of deterioration of conductor insulation or cable sheath.
4.1.5 Service conductors, outside feeders, and outside branch circuits shall have the required clearances above roofs, from ground, from building openings, and from swimming pools to prevent accidental contact.
4.1.6 Service-entrance raceways or cables shall be fastened in place.
4.1.7 Service-entrance raceways and cables shall be terminated with fittings or connectors that are approved for the type of raceways, cables, and environmental conditions.
4.1.8 Service-entrance equipment shall be readily accessible. Required access and working space shall be provided and maintained to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance.
4.1.9 Service-entrance equipment, cables, raceways, or conductors shall not show evidence of physical damage, overheating, corrosion, or other deterioration.
4.1.10 Service equipment shall be effectively grounded. The grounding electrode conductor shall be sized, terminated, and connected to one or more grounding electrode(s) to provide low impedance, and have current carrying capacity to prevent the buildup of voltages that result in undue hazard to connected equipment or to persons.
4.1.11 Grounding Electrode Conductors.
22.214.171.124 The connection of a grounding electrode conductor or bonding jumper to a grounding electrode shall be made in a manner that will ensure a permanent and effective grounding path.
126.96.36.199 The grounding electrode conductor shall be connected to the grounding electrode. The grounding electrode conductor and connector shall not show evidence of physical damage or deterioration.
188.8.131.52 The grounding electrode conductor shall be protected against physical damage as required. Metal enclosures providing physical protection of the grounding electrode conductor shall be bonded at each end to the grounding electrode conductor.
184.108.40.206 The grounding electrode conductor shall be continuous in its length unless otherwise permitted to be spliced or joined.
220.127.116.11 Where tap conductors are connected to the grounding electrode conductor, they shall be connected in such a manner that the grounding electrode conductor remains without a splice. The dwelling grounding electrode system and other grounding systems, such as those for communications, CATV, and satellite, shall be bonded together.
4.2 Panelboards and Distribution Equipment.
4.2.1 Panelboards and distribution equipment shall be accessible. Required access and working space shall be provided and maintained to permit safe operation and maintenance.
4.2.2* Panelboards and distribution equipment shall not show evidence of physical damage, overheating, corrosion, or other deterioration.
4.2.3 All cables entering the equipment shall be fastened with approved connectors.
4.2.4 All unused openings shall be closed using a material that meets or exceeds the wall thickness or characteristic of the panelboard or distribution equipment.
4.2.5 All metal parts shall be effectively grounded or bonded using approved fittings.
4.2.6 Dead-front panels, partitions, or parts of the enclosure shall be installed to ensure protection from live parts.
4.2.7 Disconnecting means marking shall comply with 4.2.7(A) and 4.2.7(B).
(A) Each disconnecting means for motors and appliances, and each service, feeder, or branch circuit at the point where it originates, shall be legibly marked to indicate its purpose unless located and arranged so the purpose is evident.
(B) The marking shall be capable of withstanding the environment involved.
4.3 Overcurrent Protective Devices.
4.3.1 Overcurrent protective devices shall be rated for the conductor under the conditions of use.
4.3.2 Overcurrent protective devices shall not show evidence of physical damage or overheating.
4.3.3 Connections and terminations of overcurrent protective devices shall not be loose or corroded.
4.3.4 Listed overcurrent protective devices shall be used or installed in accordance with any instructions included in the listing or labeling.
4.3.5 Where evidence of overfusing of or tampering with Edison-based-type fuses exists, Type S nontamperable adapters and fuses shall be installed.
4.4 Cables, Cable Assemblies, and Conductors.
4.4.1 Exposed cables and cable assemblies shall be supported as required to prevent physical damage to the cable or cable assembly.
4.4.2 Cables and cable assemblies entering panelboards, boxes, and devices shall be fastened and supported as required to ensure that stress is not transmitted to the conductors and termination(s).
4.4.3 Conductors shall be terminated as required at panelboards, devices, and boxes so as to ensure a tight connection without damage to the connection or the conductors.
4.4.4 The conductor size shall be not less than the ampere rating of the circuit unless otherwise permitted for specific types of utilization equipment.
4.4.5 Splices and taps shall be made in an approved manner.
4.4.6 Conductors, cables, and cable assemblies shall not show evidence of overheating or deterioration.
4.4.7 Conductors, cables, and cable assemblies shall not show evidence of fraying, damage, or physical abuse.
4.5 Flexible Cords and Cables.
4.5.1 Flexible cords and cables shall not be used as follows:
(1) As a substitute for the fixed wiring of a structure
(2) Where run through holes in walls, ceilings, or floors
(3) Where run through doorways, windows, under carpets and so forth
(4) Where attached to building surfaces
4.5.2 Flexible cords or cables used as a substitute for fixed wiring to supply outlets in rooms or areas shall be removed and, where required, shall be replaced with permanently installed receptacles using an approved wiring method.
4.6.1 Raceways shall be fastened in place.
4.6.2 Raceways shall be terminated in fittings or connectors that are designed for the specific wiring method with which they are used.
4.6.3 Raceways shall not show evidence of deterioration or physical damage.
4.7 Permanently Connected Luminaires (Lighting Fixtures).
4.7.1 Luminaire (lighting fixture) taps and branch-circuit supply conductors shall not show evidence of damage or deterioration from overheating.
4.7.2 Luminaire (lighting fixture) canopies shall be fastened in place.
4.7.3 Where identified, luminaires (lighting fixtures) shall be lamped in accordance with available instructions and shall not exceed marked maximum ratings.
4.7.4 Where luminaire (lighting fixture) tap conductors or terminals and branch-circuit conductors are identified for polarization, luminaire (lighting fixture) connections shall be correctly polarized.
4.7.5 Polarization of Luminaires (Fixtures). Luminaires (fixtures) shall be wired so that the screw shells of lampholders are connected to the same luminaire (fixture) or circuit conductor or terminal. The grounded conductor, where connected to a screw-shell lampholder, shall be connected to the screw shell.
4.7.6 Open incandescent lamps installed in clothes closets shall have required clearance from combustible materials.
4.8 Boxes and Enclosures.
4.8.1 Covers shall be fastened in place.
4.8.2 Boxes, covers, and enclosures installed in wet locations shall be identified for use in wet locations.
4.8.3 Boxes and enclosures installed in damp locations shall be placed or equipped so as to prevent moisture from entering or accumulating.
4.8.4 All unused openings in boxes or enclosures shall be closed using a material that meets or exceeds the wall thickness or characteristic of the box or enclosure.
4.8.5 Where an equipment grounding conductor is provided, all non-current-carrying metal parts that are likely to become energized shall be effectively grounded.
4.8.6 In walls and ceilings constructed of wood or other combustible surface material, boxes shall be flush with the finished surface or project therefrom.
4.8.7 Plaster, drywall, or plasterboard surfaces that are broken or incomplete shall be repaired so there will be no gaps or open spaces greater than 3 mm (1/8 in.) at the edge of the box or fitting.
4.9 General-Use Switches and Receptacles.
4.9.1 Enclosures shall be fastened in place.
4.9.2 Faceplates shall not be damaged or missing.73-9 Report on Proposals — Copyright, NFPA NFPA 73 DRAFT
4.9.3 Connection of conductors to termination points shall ensure tight connections without showing evidence of arcing or overheating.
4.9.4 Switches and receptacles shall be fastened in place and shall not show evidence of overheating or physical damage.
4.9.5 The function of switches and receptacles shall not be impaired by physical damage.
4.9.6 Switches and receptacles shall not be painted or have other coatings applied unless so listed for such use.
4.9.7* Receptacle wiring shall comply with 4.9.7(A) through 4.9.7©.
(A) Receptacles shall have correct wiring when tested with a listed receptacle tester. The tester shall provide indications when branch circuit conductors are not connected to the intended terminals on the receptacle.
(B) Where receptacles and branch-circuit conductors are identified for polarization, receptacles shall be correctly polarized.
© All grounding-type receptacles shall be grounded or shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection where installed on a circuit that does not have an equipment grounding conductor.
4.9.8 Receptacles that fail a blade retention test, with a listed retention tester, shall be replaced.
4.9.9 Switches shall be rated for the connected load.
4.9.10 The grounded conductor of branch circuits shall not be switched unless both grounded and ungrounded conductors are simultaneously broken.
Chapter 5 Appliances and Special Equipment
5.1* Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters. Where ground-fault circuit-interrupters are installed, they shall operate correctly when tested with their integral test function.
5.2 Smoke Alarms. Where smoke alarms are installed, they shall operate correctly when tested with their integral test function.
5.3 Appliances and Utilization Equipment.
5.3.1 Appliances and utilization equipment shall have a disconnecting means to disconnect all ungrounded conductors.
5.3.2 If a protective device rating is marked on an appliance, the branch circuit overcurrent device rating shall not exceed the protective device rating marked on the appliance.
5.3.3 All cables entering the equipment shall be fastened with approved connectors.
5.3.4 All non-current-carrying metal parts shall be effectively grounded.
5.4* Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters. Where arc-fault circuit interrupters are installed, they shall operate correctly when tested with their integral test function.
5.5 Ceiling Suspended (Paddle) Fans. Ceiling suspended (paddle) fans shall be supported as required.
Annex A Explanatory Material
Annex A is not a part of the requirements of this NFPA document but is included for informational purposes only. This annex contains explanatory material, numbered to correspond with the applicable text paragraphs.
A.1.2 This code is intended to be suitable for mandatory application by governmental bodies and other inspection agencies exercising legal jurisdiction over electrical installations.
A.3.2.1 Approved. The National Fire Protection Association does not approve, inspect, or certify any installations, procedures, equipment, or materials; nor does it approve or evaluate testing laboratories. In determining the acceptability of installations, procedures, equipment, or materials, the authority having jurisdiction may base acceptance on compliance with NFPA or other appropriate standards. In the absence of such standards, said authority may require evidence of proper installation, procedure, or use. The authority having jurisdiction may also refer to the listings or labeling practices of an organization that is concerned with product evaluations and is thus in a position to determine compliance with appropriate standards for the current production of listed items.
A.3.2.2 Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). The phrase “authority having jurisdiction,” or its acronym AHJ, is used in NFPA documents in a broad manner, since jurisdictions and approval agencies vary, as do their responsibilities. Where public safety is primary, the authority having jurisdiction may be a federal, state, local, or other regional department or individual such as a fire chief; fire marshal; chief of a fire prevention bureau, labor department, or health department; building official; electrical inspector; or others having statutory authority. For insurance purposes, an insurance inspection department, rating bureau, or other insurance company representative may be the authority having jurisdiction. In many circumstances, the property owner or his or her designated agent assumes the role of the authority having jurisdiction; at government installations, the commanding officer or departmental official may be the authority having jurisdiction.
A.3.2.3 Code. The decision to designate a standard as a “code” is based on such factors as the size and scope of the document, its intended use and form of adoption, and whether it contains substantial enforcement and administrative provisions.
A.3.2.4 Listed. The means for identifying listed equipment may vary for each organization concerned with product evaluation, some of which do not recognize equipment as listed unless it is also labeled. Use of the system employed by the listing organization allows the Authority Having Jurisdiction to identify a listed product.
A.3.3.12 Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) Class A ground-fault circuit interrupters trip when the current to ground has a value in the range of 4 mA to 6 mA. For further information, see UL 943, Standard for Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters.
A.4.2.2 When replacing a panelboard or distribution equipment that contains overcurrent protection devices for lighting and appliance branch circuits that supply 125-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20- ampere outlets, additional protection can be accomplished by providing arc-fault circuit interrupter protection for the circuits that existed prior to the replacement.
A.4.9.7 Additional protection can be provided for nongrounding type receptacles by replacing the devices with a ground-fault circuit interruper-type receptacle or a grounding-type receptacle in accordance with 406.3(D)(3)(b) or © of NFPA 70, 2005 edition.
A.5.1 Additional protection can be accomplished by providing ground-fault circuit interrupter protection in accordance with 210.8(A) and 406.3(D)(2) of NFPA 70, 2005 edition.
A.5.4 Additional protection can be accomplished by providing arc-fault circuit interrupter protection in accordance with 210.12 of NFPA 70, 2005 edition.
Annex C Informational References
This annex is not part of the requirements of this NFPA document but is included for informational purposes only.
C.1 Referenced Publications. The following documents or portions thereof are referenced within this code for informational purposes only and are thus not part of the requirements of this document unless also listed in Chapter 2.
C.1.1 NFPA Publications. National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471.
NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 2002 edition.
C.1.2 Other Publications.
C.1.2.1 UL Publications. Underwriters Laboratories Inc., 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062.
UL 943, Standard for Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters, 2003.
[size=3]C.2 Informational References. (Reserved)
C.3 References for Extracts. (Reserved)