TPRV questions

I understand the concept of the TPR valve and why it’s important, yet I am confused by how it should be terminated. I believe it is most prudent to discharge directly to the floor with an air gap so that the homeowner will know when something is amiss. I have also read that the TPR line can discharge “to the outdoors” or “to other approved locations”. My mother’s home (in a new development) has the TPRV discharge line with 2 elbows and drain into a floor drain (no air gap) along with a condensate line. I have also seen the same on a few other models for other builder’s developments.
I would much rather see it discharge to the floor - or at least into a coffee cup (as I saw on another thread).

My questions are these;
A. Is it the AHJ that determines the “other approved locations”?
B. If so, what are some examples?
C. Where (if outdoors) would the discharge usually be?
D. What is the remedy when the TPRV does discharge?

I have gone through the TPR course here and I have one other question re:
7. Discharge to the floor, to an indirect waste receptor, or to the outdoors.
****E. What is considered an “indirect waste receptor”?

Thanks in advance for your help, esp for code references.

A. Yes
B. Floor drain
C. It varies. Usually, it through the closest exterior wall. However, I’ve seen it go the full length of a garage before.
D. I don’t think there’s a set procedure. I’d check the temperature setting on the control valve. Turn the temperature down to turn off the burner. If the water heater won’t cool off (stuck valve), then turn off the gas supply.
E. See B