If so, what would be some of your inspection procedures, comments, and or recommendations concerning these adapters?
Advisement: The subject property has antiquated two-pronged receptacles present at numerous locations. Two-pronged receptacles presence in and of itself may not be a defect or a concern by current standards. The problem lies in how they are used and the unapproved or possible unsafe use of certain appliance plug adapters on items such as but not limited to refrigerators, washing machines, computers, etc. that require a ground as delivered from the manufacture. Remember that an electrical engineering specialist for a particular reason of safety has engineered the three-pronged grounded appliance wire, and any deviation from this engineering application may not be safe. Using an improperly installed grounding or non-grounding adapter to plug a three-pronged appliance wire into a two-pronged receptacle can present a safety condition that needs to be considered and confirmed or remedied by a qualified electrician. The use of modification adapters or surge protection devices may not properly protect the plugged in appliance or users of these devices.
What Barry said…
Knowing that, I actually carry one of these in my comp. bag for those cases when I don’t have a 3 prong outlet, and still want to work on the report on-site.
TWO- and THREE-HOLE RECEPTACLES
**The use of three-hole ground-type receptacles on a two-wire electrical system gives the impression that safety protection is present in the circuit, when in reality it is not. Older style two-hole receptacles are still available and should be installed to eliminate this false sense of security. Three-hole receptacles may be more convenient (and often less expensive), but are often installed without giving consideration to this situation. **
**The use of a three-pronged plug in an ungrounded receptacle can be a safety concern. The plug has the grounding provision for a reason and electrical appliances should always be used for the function they were intended to perform. **
**All such installations should be labeled ****“No Equipment Ground”****on each receptacle that applies. **Grounding of all “three-pronged” receptacles or protection with a Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) on each is recommended for safety reasons, prior to the close of escrow or after taking possession of the property.
**“Two-hole” outlets are not grounded and should never be used with a “three-pronged” plug. Adapters have been devised for this usage, but there is still no adequate ground and such adapters are not always safe. Until the electrical system is upgraded for “three-pronged” usage, it would be prudent to not use adapters, extension cords, or “three-pronged” plugs in any way. Consider that “three-pronged” plugs have been engineered for use with a “three-hole” grounded receptacle. **
Avoid the use of multipliers (multi-outlets in a plug-in box at a single receptacle), adapters, and extension cords. Electrical outlets should be used only for their prescribed function.
OK, the adapter on the left is UL Listed, and the one on the right is a sure way to commit sucide.
Grounding-Pole Identification Grounding-type receptacles, adapters, cord connections, and attachment plugs shall have a means for connection of a grounding conductor to the grounding pole.
A terminal for connection to the grounding pole shall be designated by one of the following:
(1) A green-colored hexagonal-headed or -shaped terminal screw or nut, not readily removable.
(2) A green-colored pressure wire connector body (a wire barrel).
(3) A similar green-colored connection device, in the case of adapters. The grounding terminal of a grounding adapter shall be a green-colored rigid ear, lug, or similar device. The grounding connection shall be so designed that it cannot make contact with current-carrying parts of the receptacle, adapter, or attachment plug. The adapter shall be polarized.
Your are off in left field again
- HI’s do not care if something is UL listed
- If it is pluged into an outlet we do not inspect or care
- No statement as to how the adaptor was installed (socket screw not grounded)
- The adaptor on the right is used by many to measure ground leakage current
Thus not a reportable issue
Joe is right
In Chicago if the one one the left is screwed in it is acceptable.
And if it is not attached to the outlet would you post it in your report??
Do you realy think that we should check UL listing of all thing pluged into a socket??
We can not check all thing that are pluged into an outlet
UL listing is not the ended to all issues – what about home built items like a HVAC system or a SOLAR back feed system??
Joe is wrong with the question
If it is plug in it is out of the HI SOP and the commonsense of the HI
Rich , if a permenent item such as a Fridge is plugged in to an adaptor and it is not grounded to the center screw I will write it up, and would not be doing my job if I ignored it.
In Chicago we use the conduit as ground.
Two wire may be grandfathered in but the adapter better be secured for safety.
If I overlook this I might as well tell them to cut the ground leg off the plug.
Hope I made this clear.
I agree with Richard, unless it is an appliance like a refrigerator that is going to stay with the house. Then I would add similar verbiage to what Barry posted.
Two pronged receptacles may indeed be “grounded”. The purpose of the third hole in the receptacle to extend the system ground to what ever is plugged into it.
Let’s not lose sight of the difference between a grounded and grounding receptacle.
And, there may be an adequate ground present in “two wire” systems, if they are 2-wire with ground. Ths would included armor sheathed cable, where the sheath is the ground path. So long as it is properly rated, and mechanically (and electrically) bonded to the panel and receptacle box, the system ground is extended to the receptacle. In fact, some receptacles are (I believe) rated to be grounded via attachment screws between the receptacle and metallic box (no ground wire needed).
Sparkies… I am ready for my flogging.
"Contact Devices or Yokes Contact devices or yokes designed and listed as self-grounding are permitted in conjunction with the supporting screws to establish the grounding circuit between the device yoke and flush-type boxes."
There was a period of time between the end of WWII and the 60s when the NEMA 5-15 became code that the “GI Bill” (mortgage) required a grounded wiring method but they still installed NEMA 1-15R receptacles. If you were in a place without an effective VA inspection program you might still have ungrounded boxes and some builders would simply not build a “GI” house.
Just did a safety inspection yesterday - No ground wire to any outlets - 50 year old 60 amp panel in bed room closit
Electric drier - AC / Heat pump - Electric Hot water
Double tapped in sealed meter can with a fused disconect SW for drier
Double tapped in a disconect SW for the AC / heat pump and the main panel
Microwave pluged in with an adapter attached with a screw – Small old refrigerator pluged in with an extention cord and an adapter
One 90 year old person living in home on fixed income
Everything has been working fine for many years
**What now? **
**Don’t use dryer - refrigerator - AC / heat pump or microwave. **
**Take them out **
Wire home back to how it was constructed 50 years ago and everything will be fine.
A two wire, with ground…
This may include two physical wires with rated armor sheath.
Whether or not your engineer friends believe the screw to be sufficient is not the point. Whether the NEC believes it is sufficient is the question. This is why the aluminum tracer is wrapped with the screw.
But, back to my point. If the system is grounded, chances are the receptacle is also grounded. Even with a mechanical bond between the mounting screws, receptacle ears, and metallic box, the system ground extends to the physical receptacle. So, yes, the receptacle is “grounded”.
The purpose of the ground “hole” is to extend the system ground the the device plugged in.
Why would the builder install a 2-prong? Because he could.
The cost of the receptacle has nothing to do with whether or not the system is grounded.
Back in the 70’s, when I worked for Maytag, ther installaton on washers and dryers included a 3-prong adapter, with the tab screwed into the center screw of the receptacle. Where the system was not grounded (we were supposed to check), we would install a wire between the washing machine’s metallic panel and a cold water pipe.
But, back to two wire cables. When I am speaking of 2-wire with ground, I am speaking of just that. I am not confusing it with the old snakeskin cable (NM) where only 2 wires are present.
The inverse to this is where I sometimes see armor sheathed cables terminated in plastic boxes. Harry the Homeowner sometimes believes that wrapping a copper conductor around the metal sheathing and terminating it into the plastic box, and to the receptacle, is okey dokey:roll:
"A two wire, with ground…
This may include two physical wires with rated armor sheath."
I don’t often see a “2-wire/ground” in house built in the 30’s - 40’s - 50’s. Availability and cost of the wire may be the reason. Even then, costs were considered when building a multi-house subdivision. Every buck saved on each house was multplied by the total houses built–then and now!
"The inverse to this is where I sometimes see armor sheathed cables terminated in plastic boxes. Harry the Homeowner sometimes believes that wrapping a copper conductor around the metal sheathing and terminating it into the plastic box, and to the receptacle, is okey dokey".:roll:
I see that all the time–and shudder…:shock:
"But, back to my point. If the system is grounded, chances are the receptacle is also grounded. Even with a mechanical bond between the mounting screws, receptacle ears, and metallic box, the system ground extends to the physical receptacle. So, yes, the receptacle is ‘grounded’".
That’s “if the system is grounded…” but it generally ain’t around here. On the rare occasions when I do find a grounded system, the ground is to the box only. It is assumed that the screw through the ears will sufficiently serve as a ground. Then the receptacle is removed attach a new wire for a switch or outlet elsewhere and left dangling (with the appliance attached) until the new fixture is finished (sometimes for days, or weeks). Then they paint… This, of course, can hamper the contact. I see that frequently.
"Whether or not your engineer friends believe the screw to be sufficient is not the point. Whether the NEC believes it is sufficient is the question. This is why the aluminum tracer is wrapped with the screw."
The NEC is a general guideline, and not to be considered a specific application. The NFPA reviews, revises, and upgrades the code every three years because what was safe yesterday (or in 1940) may not be safe today.
Today’s needs for electrical service are much greater than 50 - 60 years ago.
I still prefer to see old wiring upgraded, not because of the NEC, but because it’s safer.
There is nothing dangerous about an adapter–it’s the way we use it that creates unsafe conditions.
This is phrase used by “Speedy Petey” in another thread, and I like and agree with it…
"This new handle twi code is IMO a sad event, and I am afraid that we and the NEC are taking a dangerous path towards “over coding” ourselves."
I have a lot of older homes here and almost none have armored cable, so the adapters are never grounded.
Here is my report comment:
Most of the electrical system does not incorporate a grounding conductor. Rewire, use 2-prong receptacles and/or separately grounded receptacles as required. Avoid use of ungrounded 3-prong receptacles and adapters to reduce risk of electrical shock and to provide protection for sensitive electronic equipment. See body of report for locations of ‘open ground’ and ‘no ground’ (two prong) receptacles. See http://bradyinspects.com/house_electric.html for more information.
I made the page myself - I may have borrowed a picture or two.