Raymond, Larry was just answering your question as to why there is moisture on the inside, and he was correct on his response.
Block foundations are like sponges, and if not properly waterproofed on the exterior, water will come inside the block and find its way to the interior of the basement.
In most cases like yours, the only way to repair properly is from the outside. Any corrections on the inside will only attempt to control the problem.
As far as the other problem, to me, it looks like moisture damage, but I am not there to see it first hand.
Recommend a waterproofing contractor to evaluate and repair as required.