Main panel questions

I’m fairly new to the inspection stuff and i’ve been doing practice inspections at family members homes. The main panel I came across today was a little different that others I’ve ran into before. These may seems like really dumb questions but here we go:

Question #1: I notice on this bus bar that there are some grounds and neutrals double tapped under the same screw. I suspect this is not allowed but wanted to make certain by asking you all.

Here is a photo of the bus bar:

Question #2: The pic below was for a newer a/c installed in the home. Is this considered a sub panel? I think it is but wanted to double check.

I know in sub panels the neutrals and grounds are suppose to be isolated, all I see are grounds here though, is there something missing? Or something that I’m missing?

Another thing I noticed which I’m pretty positive is a no no is that this sub panel is tapping off the main disconnect.

Here is a pic of the full main panel for reference:

Thanks in advance for the help!

There are numerous issues with this installation. IMO it’s at the point where it needs to be ripped out and replaced by a qualified electrician.

Hey Robert, thanks for the input. Could you elaborate a little more for me as far as issues go? I am new and trying to learn. I’ve noted various branch wires being undersized, and the double tapping of the main.

There’s the double taps that you’ve mentioned, the lack of connectors on the NM cable, the multiple conductors on the single screw on neutral bar, the tap (or service entrance conductors) need to be in a raceway if they’re truly a tap or in a wiring method that’s on the list in NEC 230.43 if they’re SEC’s.

Thanks for the input! I appreciate it

That is a disconnect for the A/C. It is 240 volts. There is no neutral.

Is that solid strand aluminum in the first photo?